mercredi 23 octobre 2013

English Grammar

English Grammar

 This is a general overview of English grammar,

1- Part of speech : English Grammar has 8 parts of speech -

1) Nouns
2) Adjectives
3) Verbs
4) Adverbs
5) Prepositions
6) Pronouns
7) Conjunctions
8) Interjections


A noun can be defined as the as a word which names a person, place ,thing ,animal and an idea.
Examples: Girl, Sea, Germany, College, Love, Kurt Cobain, eye, dream, map, tiger.
Kurt Cobain is a noun because it is the name of a person. Germany is a noun because it is the name of a place. A map is a noun because it is the name of a thing.
Nouns can be classified into proper and common nouns. Proper nouns usually begin with capital letters as it names a particular person, place or a thing.
Examples of Proper Nouns: Germany, Sachin, New York.
Common nouns are simply words that name people, places, things . But they are not the actual names of people, places and things. For example the word “boy ” is a common noun but the word “John” is a proper noun because it is the specific name of the boy. The word “Goa’ is a proper noun because it is the name of a particular state but the word “state” is a common noun because it could refer to any state in India.


We can define adjective as a word which describes or gives more information about a noun or a pronoun. Adjectives would normally describe the noun in terms of its color, size, number and kind. For example, In the sentence “The lazy boy slept on the rug”, the word lazy is an adjective which gives more information about the noun boy.
Usually ,an adjective comes before the noun that it describes as in “lazy boy”. It can also come in the form of word be as in “The boy is lazy”. We can use more than one adjective in such a position in the sentence, ”The boy is lazy, naughty and tall”.
Examples for Adjectives:Tall,Big,Small,Lazy,Beautiful,Handsome,Naughty,Fair,Dark.


Often referred to as the King in English even the shortest sentence contains a verb, for example WAIT! You will possibly not be able to make a one word sentence with any other type of word.
Verbs are words that denote an action. For example walk, eat, sleep, shout all convey an action.
Verbs at times also give us the idea of existence .of state, of being. For example verbs like exist, seem and belong all convey a state of being.
A verb will always have a subject. In the sentence ‘Sachin plays cricket” Sachin is the subject and plays is the verb. So we can conclude by saying that verbs tell us about what a subject does or is;
In terms of action-Sachin plays cricket. In terms of being-John seems kind.


A word which would give us more information about a verb, an adjective or another adverb. 
An adverb will describe verbs ,adjectives and adverbs in terms of frequency, time and manner. In the sentence “John walks fast”, fast describes the manner in which John walks. In the sentence” John runs very fast, very describes the adverb fast and gives information about how fast John runs.
Most adverbs will end with –ly but not all words that end with –ly are adverbs ,for example “Ugly’ ends with –ly but is an adjective and not an adverb.
Many a times we can make an adjective into an adverb by adding –ly ,for example sincerely,faithfully,quickly,swiftly.
The adverbs relative to time will tell us “When” something happens and adverbs relative to frequency will tell us “How Often” something happens.
Adverb of time-“Do it now’
Adverb of frequency-“I always do my work”


A word that will show a relationship among other words in the sentence. The relationships could possibly include place, ,direction, cause, manner and amount. In the sentence “Ram went to the store” to is the preposition that shows direction. Sita came by taxi, by is the preposition which reflects manner.
In the sentence “The football match will begin at 5pm” at is a preposition showing time and in the sentence “It is under the bed”, under is the preposition which shows place.
The preposition is almost always used before the noun or the pronoun that is why it is called pre-position.


Pronouns are words that are used instead of nouns in order to avoid repetition. One of the most commonly used preposition is “IT”.
Lets take some examples.
The bus was late, the bus had been delayed.(Without the pronoun)
The bus was late, it had been delayed(With the use of pronoun).The sentence now sounds much better as we have stopped the repetition of the word bus and used a pronoun ”it”. In this example the bus is singular so even its replacement has to be singular so we used it.
The buses were late,the buses had been delayed(Without the pronoun)
The buses were late they had been delayed.(with the pronoun).In this example buses are plural hence we replace it with they which is also plural.


A conjunction is a connecter which connects other words or a group of words in a sentence. For instance if we say John and Paul formed the Beatles the conjunction “and’ connects the two nouns in the sentence. The Beatles could sing or write, the word “or” connects the two verbs sing and write. In the sentence , “ we reached early but we did not get the tickets “ the word “but” connects two group of words.
There are three types of conjunctions.
Coordinating conjunctions: They connect two equal parts of the sentence.
Example: They sang and wrote. ”and” is used to join words together in the sentence.
Subordinating Conjunctions: They connect two parts of the sentence that are not equal.
Examples: before, until, after, unless.
Correlative conjunctions :pairs of conjunctions that work together.
Examples: both…..and, either..or, neither …nor.


It can be defined as a word added to a sentence to reflect or convey an emotion. It has no grammatical relation to any part of the sentence.
An interjection is always followed by an exclamation mark.
Some examples of sentences with interjection.
Oh no, 
OH! this is the end please share this with your mate ! and thank you

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